Exercise the Flexibility of the Torso Dynamically

Exercise the Flexibility of the Torso Dynamically
a) Objective: to train the flexibility of the torso muscles
b) How to do: (1) Put your hands on your waist, then bend your body to the left and right 8 counts (2) Hands above the head, palms tightly, arms straight, bend the body to the left side and as much as 2 × 8 counts ( 3) Put your hands on your waist and turn left and right 2 × 8 counts (4) Hands over head, palms tight, arms straight, rotate left and right 2 × 8 counts.

Exercise hip flexibility
a) Objective: flex the hip joint and muscles
b) How to do: (1) First stand up straight, legs together and arms straight above your head (2) Then swing your arms down by bending your hips, then move your hands over your head (3) Movement this is done alternately from top to bottom and vice versa 5 × 8 count.

Exercise the flexibility of the knee joint
a) Objective: to enforce the knee joint
b) How to do: (1) First stand straight, then place one foot in front and the other foot behind where the knee of the front leg is bent (2) Both palms are flat on the floor, parallel to the front foot (3) Then pull the hips down repeatedly using the position of the feet (4) This movement is carried forward and back (2 × 8 count

Static flexibility exercises
Static fatigue training is to stay in a position for a certain period of time
1) Static knee joint flexibility exercises
a) Objective: train the flexibility of the knee joint muscles
b) How to do: (1) Stand up straight, place one foot in front and bend your legs back straight, hands touch the floor, hold 8 counts (2) Turn over, feet that were straight gentian bent, hold 8 counts
2) Static back and thigh muscle exercises are static
a) Purpose: to train the flexibility of the back and thigh muscles
b) How to do: (1) Stand straight, legs straight together, bend your body so that your hands touch the floor hold 8 counts (2) Stand up straight, legs tightly straightened, bend your arms holding your ankles, kiss your knees, hold 8 counts

3) Exercise static back muscles flexibility.
a) Objective: to train the flexibility of the back muscles
b) How to do: (1) Stand straight, legs straight together, bend your body until your hands touch the floor, hold 8 count. (2) Stand up straight, legs straight together, bend your arms holding the ankles, kiss the knees, hold 8 count.

4) Exercise
a) Objective: to train the flexibility of the back muscles
b) How to do Sleep on your back, legs open and knees bent, feet flat on the floor, palms on the sides of the ears, elbows pointing up. (2) Raise your body by rejecting both hands so that they are straight and the legs are also straightened together. Maintain the kayang position for 8 counts

Balance Training
Balance is maintaining the body from a pressure or burden on the body in a state of being still or in motion. This balance exercise can be done by reducing or reducing the pedestal area. Balance training is an exercise / form of posture in a balanced state both in standing, sitting, and squatting.

Balance training lifts one leg up from the air.
1) Objective: train the strength of leg muscles, back and arms, and maintain balance.
2) How to do: a) Sleep on your back, legs open and knees bent, feet flat on the floor, palms on the sides of the ears, elbows pointing up. b) Lift your body by rejecting both arms to the straight and both legs are also straightened together (the position of the shadow). c) Lift one leg straight up, keep the position for 8 counts. d) Do it with a different kind of old feet.

Dynamic Tapping Exercises for Developing Relaxation

Dynamic Tapping Exercises for Developing Relaxation
3) Squat to lift the body
a) Purpose: to exercise arm muscle strength.
b) How to do: (1) The initial stance of squatting, legs slightly open, hands flat on the floor between the thighs approaching the knees, and arms straight. (2) Touch of the thighs to the inside close to the elbows (3) Lift both legs slowly up until it is loose and the floor, the elbows can serve as a support on the thigh. (4) Hold this movement as long as possible.

4) Walk face down with your hands
a) Purpose: to exercise arm and shoulder muscle strength
b) How to do: (1) This exercise is done in pairs, one person walking with the palm of the hand, while the partner helps by holding up his legs. (2) This exercise is done repeatedly and alternately with a distance of 10 meters
Abdominal muscle strength training (sit ups)
1) Purpose: to exercise arm and shoulder muscle strength.
2) How to do: a) Early supine sleep attitude, knees bent, fingers intertwined behind the head, and ankles held by friend. b) Lift your body up to a sitting position, hands still behind your head. c) The body is lowered back to the initial attitude. d) This movement is repeated as many times as possible.

Back muscle training (back up)
1) Purpose: to train the strength of the back muscles
2) How to do: a) The initial attitude of sleeping face down, both legs tightly stretched backwards, hands with fingers intertwined placed behind the head, ankles held by a friend b) Lift the body up until the chest and stomach position no longer touch the floor, hands still behind the head. c) Body lowered back) This movement is repeated as many times as possible.

Flexibility training
Flexibility is the ability of a person to carry out maximum movement in space without significant obstacles.
There are (2) two flexural exercises movement techniques, namely dynamic flexibility and static flexibility.

Dynamic Tapping Exercises
Dynamic fatigue exercises are various patterns of simple swinging and spinning movements aimed at developing freedom and smoothness of movement. Examples of movements in dynamic flexibility exercises: rotate arms, swing legs, rotate neck, and rotate waist. The exercises are really for developing relaxation, improving blood circulation, and presenting exercises such as light warm up. to the initial attitude.

1) Dynamic neck flexion training
a) Objective: train the flexibility of the neck muscles.
b) How to do: (1) Tilt the head left and right, touch the left ear to the left shoulder and right ear to the right shoulder do 2 × 8 counts (2) Move the head down, chin touches the chest, and move it to back to look up do as much as 2 × 8 count (3) Look head to the right and left do as much as 2 × 8 count (4) Turn the head to the left and right side. One round of 4 counts do a movement of 2 × 8 counts.

2) Dynamic shoulder joint flexibility exercises
a) Objective: to train the joints and shoulder muscles and expand shoulder movements
b) How to do: (1) First stand up straight, legs are shoulder width apart, and hands are at the sides of the body (2) Then spread both arms straight sideways, then rotate the arms from starting to rotate slowly then quickly and round from small then enlarged (3) This movement is done starting from the movement of turning the arm towards the right as many as 8 counts, then continuing with the turning of the arm towards the left as much as 8 counts.

Benefits of Physical Fitness

Benefits of Physical Fitness
Coordination
Coordination is the ability of a person to integrate different body movements into one effective movement. The ability to coordinate the body can be trained by bouncing the ball against the wall with the right hand and catching it again using the left hand. In essence, coordination exercises require strong instinctual abilities as well as high concentration.

Balance
Balance is the ability to control organs and nerve muscles so that they can control body movements properly. One sport that relies on the ability to balance is gymnastics and beautiful jumping.
Physical exercises that are useful for practicing balance include candlelight exercises, walking on wooden blocks, and standing with your hands as a support.

Accuracy
Accuracy is the ability to control movements according to the target. Bowling and archery are branches of sports games that rely on accuracy.
Some exercises that can be done to train accuracy or accuracy include throwing a ball at a certain basket or target.

Reaction
Reaction is a person's ability to respond to stimuli or stimuli provided by others. The form of physical fitness training to practice the accuracy of reactions is throwing the ball.

Benefits of Physical Fitness
The following are the benefits obtained from physical fitness which include:
Improve blood circulation and the working system of the heart.
Increase stamina and strength of the body so that the body becomes more energetic.
Having the ability to recover organs from the body right after exercise.
Having the right body response.
Reducing the risk of obesity.
Prevents heart disease.
Reduces high blood pressure.
Overcoming depression.
Avoid osteoporosis "bone loss".
Various Types of Physical Fitness Exercises
The Following Are Various Kinds of Physical Fitness Exercises

Physical Fitness Training
The main purpose of physical fitness training is to maintain and improve the level of physical fitness. The elements of physical fitness related to the concept of physical fitness in daily life consist of strength, flexibility and balance.
Forms of strength training, flexibility, and balance that can be done in an easy and inexpensive way, but produce maximum fitness if done correctly, regularly, and for a long period of time.

Strength
Strength is the ability of the body's muscles to contract to generate tension against a prisoner. The form of training that is suitable for developing strength is resistance exercises where we have to lift, push or pull a load. The burden can come from our own limbs (external resistance).
For good results, resistance training must be maximal to withstand the load and the weight must gradually gain weight in order to increase muscle development. Forms of exercise include: lifting barbells, dumbbells, weight training (weight training), and training with tools using spring (spring divices).
Muscle strength is a very important component to improve overall physical condition. The strength benefits for the body are:
As a driving force for every physical activity,
As a protector from possible injury
Strength will make people run faster, throw or kick farther and more efficiently, hit harder, and can help strengthen joint stability.
Strength training with our own body weights (internal resistance) include:

Exercises for arm muscles
1) Push up (face down push up body)
a) Purpose: to exercise arm muscle strength.
b) How to do: (1) Sleep on your stomach, legs closed together straight back with your feet resting on the floor. (2) Both palms are flat on the floor beside the chest, fingers facing forward, elbows bent. (3) Raise your body upward until your hands are straight, while your head, body and legs are in a straight line. (4) The body is lowered again by bending the arms, while the position of the head, body and legs stays straight without touching the floor. (5) This movement is repeated until it is not strong.

2) Pull up (hanging up the body)
a) Purpose: to exercise arm muscle strength.
b) How to do: (1) Initial attitude: depends on a single bar, the distance of both hands shoulder width apart, the position of the palm facing towards the head, both arms straight. (2) Lifting the body upward until the chin is above the bar. (3) The body is lowered again by straightening the arms, while the position of the head, body and legs remains straight. (4) This movement is repeated until it is not strong.

Physical Fitness Material

Physical Fitness Material
Definition of Physical Fitness
In general, the notion of physical fitness is one's ability to carry out daily work lightly and easily without feeling significant fatigue and still having spare energy to carry out other activities. Benefits of physical fitness for the body, among others. Other definitions Physical fitness is the body's ability to carry out activities without experiencing significant fatigue. This is almost the same as the understanding of physical fitness stated by Sudarno (1992: 9) that physical fitness is a condition when the body is able to perform its daily tasks properly and efficiently without experiencing significant fatigue, and the body still has good energy reserves to overcome sudden reserves and emergency ones.

Definition of Physical Fitness According to Experts
The Following Is An Understanding Of Physical Fitness According To Experts.
Prof. Sutarman
an aspect, namely the overall physical and fitness aspects (total fitness) that gives a person the ability to lead a productive life and can adjust to any appropriate physical stress.

Proff. Soedjatmo Soemowardoyo
states that physical fitness is the body's ability to adjust its bodily functions within the limits of the physiology of the environment (altitude, humidity, etc.) and or physical work with sufficiently efficient without excessive fatigue.
In general, the notion of physical fitness is one's ability to carry out daily work lightly and easily without feeling significant fatigue and still having spare energy to do other activities.

Components of Physical Fitness
The following are the components and elements of physical fitness which are divided into ten types, among which are:

Strength
Strength can be said as a condition of the body that is able to use muscles when charged to carry out an activity. Strong muscle can be achieved with strenuous exercise that is done routinely and consistently.
One way to train muscle strength is to do weight training. Some other forms of physical fitness training to train muscle strength are as follows:

Push-ups, to exercise arm muscle strength.
Crunches, training the strength of the abdominal muscles.
Squat-jump, strength training of leg and abdominal bibs.
Endurance
Endurance is a person's ability to use organs such as the heart, lungs, and so effectively and efficiently to carry out activities. In contrast to strength, endurance can be trained with light exercises such as running and jogging that are done routinely for at least 30 minutes every day.

Muscular Power
Muscle power is a person's ability to utilize maximum strength in the shortest possible time. Muscle power is related to the anaerobic system in the process of meeting energy needs.

Physical fitness exercises that can train the ability of auto power include:
Vertical jump, to train the leg muscle explosive power.
Front jump, to train the ability of the calf muscles and legs.
Side jump, train the explosive power of leg muscles and thighs.
Speed (Speed)
Speed is a person's ability to make continuous movements in the shortest possible time. This ability is very reliable in sports that require speed, such as running short distances of 100 and 200 meters. Leg muscle strength is also very influential in training the speed of movement of the human body. The main exercise to increase speed is to run 50-200 meters.

Flexibility
Flexibility refers to the effectiveness of the human body in adjusting to movements or activities that rely on the flexibility of the body. Examples of exercises that can exercise flexural strength are gymnastics, yoga, and swimming.

Agility (Agility)
Agility is a person's ability to adjust to body positions such as from front to back, or from left to right. One type of sport that relies on agility is badminton, and soccer. Some types of physical exercise that can train agility include zig-zag running and going up and down stairs.

Pseudo Motion of the Sun

Pseudo Motion of the Sun
Shifting the sun's position towards the northern hemisphere (December 22 to June 21) and the shifting position of the sun from the northern hemisphere to the southern hemisphere (June 21 to December 21) is called the daily apparent motion of the sun. So called because the sun is actually not moving. That motion is due to the earth's revolution with a tilted rotation axis.

Visible constellations that differ from month to month, constellations
The constellations are the arrangement of stars that appear from the earth to form certain patterns. The stars forming a constellation are actually not in a close location. Because the location of the stars is very far away, so when observed from the earth as if they appear close together. The constellations that we know include Aquarius, Pisces, Gemini, Scorpio, Leo, and others.
When the earth is to the east of the sun, we can only see stars that are to the east of the sun. When the earth is north of the sun, we can only see stars that are north of the sun. As a result of the earth's revolution, the stars that appear from the earth are always changing.

Christian calendar
Based on the division of longitude, which is west longitude and east longitude, the international boundary limit is longitude 180o, consequently if the east side of the 180o longitude is on the 15th, then in the western hemisphere 180th is still the 14th, as if it jumped one day. The Islamic calendar count is based on the time of the earth's revolution, where one year is 365 ¼ days.
The first Islamic calendar used was the Julius Caesar calendar or the Julian calendar. The Julian calendar is based on the interval between one spring and the next spring in the northern hemisphere. This time interval is exactly 365,242 days or 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds. Julius Caesar set the calendar calculation as follows.

The length of time in a year is 365 days
To accommodate excess ¼ days in each year, the length of one year is extended by 1 day to 366 days every four years. One day is added in February. Longer years a day are called leap years
To make it easier to remember, then chosen as a leap year is a year that runs out in four. Examples are 1984,2000, and others

Earth Revolution
Earth's Rotation and Revolutionary Movement
Earth is a planet, in order the planets closest to the sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The earth is circulating according to its source with a rotation time of 27.9 hours and the distance of the earth's sun ± 150 million km.
The motion of the earth's rotation will affect the weather conditions on the surface of the earth, for example, during the day and night, with a change of time of ± 12 hours, for the area between 23.50 North and South Latitudes, and ± 6 months for areas around the North and South Poles, from March 21 to September 21 in the North Pole experiencing afternoon days and in the South Pole experiencing night, from September 21 to March 21 in the North Pole experiencing night and in the South Pole experiencing daytime.
The earth circulates around the sun with a revolution of 365.25 days (1 year) in an anti clockwise direction (counterclockwise) and with an average circulation speed of 18.5 miles / sec. Because the ecliptic is elliptical, the sun is one of its central points, so the distance of the earth's sun is not always fixed but it changes.
The Perihelium Point is where the earth circulates closest to the sun, occurring on December 21st. Aphelium Point is the point where the earth is farthest from the sun, occurring on June 21st. Because the earth's revolution and the tilt of the earth's axis towards the ecliptic amounted to 66.50 resulting in seasonal changes in the region which is located between 23.50 North to the North Pole and 23.50 South to the South Pole.

Impact of the Earth Revolution

Impact of the Earth Revolution
Besides rotating the Earth's axis, the Earth also made a revolutionary movement around the Sun. The motion of the Earth Revolution is the event of an object moving around the center of a particular object due to gravity. The movement of the Earth circulates around the Sun its path is not circular, but rather oval. Copernicus was the first to suggest that the Earth rotates on its axis once rounds in a day and the Earth moves around the Sun once a year.

Definition of the Earth Revolution
The Earth Revolution is the circulation of the earth around the sun. The earth's revolution is the result of a tug of war between the gravitational force of the sun and the gravitational force of the earth, in addition to the rotation of the earth on its axis or called the rotation of the earth.
When the revolution of the earth in one circle around the sun is 365¼ days. The earth evolved not perpendicular to the ecliptic plane but tilted in the same direction to form an angle of 23.50 to the sun, this angle is measured from an imaginary line connecting the north pole and south pole called the axis of rotation.

As a result of the Earth Revolution
Change in Season
The northern and southern hemisphere experiences four seasons. The four seasons are spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The following is a season table for specific times and regions in the hemisphere.

Seasons in the northern hemisphere
Spring: March 21 to June 21
Summer: June 21 to September 23
Autumn: September 23 - December 22
Winter: December 22 - March 21

The seasons in the southern hemisphere
Spring: September 23 to December 22
Summer: December 22 to March 21
Autumn: March 21 to June 22
Winter: June 21 - September 23

The Difference Between Day and Night Time
The Difference Between Day and Night Time
Between March 21 and September 23
The north pole approaches the sun, while the south pole away from the sun.
The northern hemisphere receives more sun than the southern hemisphere.
The length of day in the northern hemisphere is longer than in the southern hemisphere.
There are areas around the north pole that experience 24-hour day and there are areas around the south pole that experience 24-hour nights.
Between September 23 and March 21
The south pole is closer to the sun, while the north pole is closer to the sun.
The southern hemisphere receives more sun than the northern hemisphere.
The length of the day in the southern hemisphere is longer than the northern hemisphere.
There are areas around the north pole that experience 24-hour nights and there are areas around the south pole that experience 24-hour day.
On March 21 and December 23
The north pole and south pole are the same distance to the sun.
The northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere receive as much sun.
The length of day and night are the same in all parts of the earth.
In the equator the sun seems to pass directly above the head.

Approach in Cooperative Learning

Approach in Cooperative Learning
Although the basic principles of cooperative learning do not change, there are several variations of the model. There are four approaches to cooperative learning (Arends, 2001). Here, each approach will be briefly outlined.

Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)
STAD was developed by Robert Slavin and his friends at John Hopkin University and is the simplest cooperative learning approach. Teachers who use STAD, also refer to student group learning, present new academic information to students every week using verbal or text presentations. Students in a certain class are divided into groups of 4-5 people, each group must be heterogeneous, consisting of men and women, coming from various ethnic groups, having high, medium, and low abilities.
Team members use activity sheets or other learning tools to complete the lesson material and then help one another understand the lesson material through tutorials, quizzes, and each other and conduct discussions. Individually every week or every two weeks students are given a quiz. The quiz was scored, and each individual was given a developmental score. This developmental score is not based on the student's absolute score, but based on how far the score exceeds the previous average score.
Every week on a short assessment sheet or in other ways, it is announced which teams with the highest scores, students who achieve high development scores, or students who achieve perfect scores on the quizzes. Sometimes the whole team that reaches certain criteria is included in the sheet

Group Investigation
Group investigation is perhaps the most complex and most difficult model of cooperative learning to apply. This model was first developed by Thelan. In contrast to STAD and jigsaw, students are involved in planning both the topics studied and how their investigation goes. This approach requires more complex norms and class structures than a more teacher-centered approach.
In applying this group investigation the teacher divides the class into groups with 5 or 6 heterogeneous students. In some cases, groups can be formed by considering the familiarity of friendship or similar interests in certain topics. Next students choose the topic to be investigated, conducting an in-depth investigation of the chosen topic. Next prepare and present the report to the whole class.

Structural Approach
This approach was developed by Spencer Kagen and his colleagues. Although it has many similarities with other approaches, this approach emphasizes the use of certain structures that are designed to influence student interaction patterns.
The task structure developed by Kagen is intended as an alternative to traditional classroom structures, such as recitation, where the teacher asks questions to the whole class and students give answers after raising their hands and being appointed. The structure developed by Kagen requires students to work with each other in small groups and is more characterized by cooperative appreciation, rather than individual appreciation.
There are structures that are developed to increase the acquisition of academic content, and there are structures designed to teach social skills or group skills. Two well-known structures are think-pair-share and numbered-head-together, which can be used by teachers to teach academic content or to check students' understanding of certain contents. While active listening and time tokens, are two examples of structures developed to teach social skills.

Jigsaw
Jigsaw was first developed and trialed by Elliot Aronson and friends at the University of Texas, and later adapted by Slavin and friends at John Hopkins University (Arends, 2001). To see clearly the comparison between the four cooperative learning approaches or more commonly referred to as the type of cooperative learning.